Michael L. Mauldin
Carnegie Mellon University
Center for Machine Translation
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
Presented August 4, 1994 in Seattle at AAAI-94
In 1991 Hugh Loebner started the Loebner Prize Competition, offering a $100,000 prize to the author of the first computer program to pass an unrestricted Turing test.
J: What would you say is a liberal position on drugs? C: Do you have liberal or conservative views about the legalization of pot? Oh, all this typing is getting to me! Please continue... J: Being liberal or conservative implies that we can attach these labels and have some kind of self image and free will. Do you agree that we have free will? C: You have free will only if you believe you have free will! Can you converse with an arrdvaark? Please continue...
Weintraub's program won the first competition using the topic of ``Whimsical Conversation.'' Even though the topics he has chosen for the two following years are more serious, the program retains a comedic flavor, and humor is the program's main strength.
J: my husband is impotent and im a nymphomaniac can you help me doc? C: what makes your husband so helpless? J: he has environmental poisoning C: He has lost interest in life.
Although Ken Colby was Parry's author, this program is not a variant of Parry. Instead is is derived from a program that serves as a conversational companion for depressed patients. It is rule-based, with the left-hand side matching concepts expressed in the user input string, and the right-hand side containing multiple options for substrings, which are instantiated randomly to provide lexical variation.
J: Do you know anything about miniature schnauzers? C: I don't know anything about miniature schnauzers, Judge. Admitting Ignorance, repeating user input J: Well, I have one. We call him Pucci. He is a crazy cat--have you ever had a cat? C: What a coincidence! I have two cats direct answer to direct question from activation net J: I prefer dogs myself. Cats are too independent and they always jump up on things. By the way, are you a hep cat? C: People don't own cats...it's the other way around. controversial statement with expected followups J: Some people have snakes for pets-- do you think they can be of any value as a pet? C: I think cat people are very self-assured. Cats are very independent, but they can also be very loving. Dogs are just too subservient and quick to please for my taste. rigidly following up on previous statement about cats, but reference to snakes increases activation of snake topic. J: Okay-- but how do you "pet" a snake? C: Wow, that's unusual. I don't know many snake owners. snake topic activated after two references J: How about turtles? All they do is sit in their little artificial ponds, eat and shit, am I right? C: Turtles just aren't very satisfying as pets. They don't seem to have emotions. direct response from activation network J: Aha! But where do we draw the line as humans? Who are we to decide which animals have worth and which do not? C: Go on. default, non-committal response, given no hot topic keywords J: Take bees for example. I happen to like them. C: Me too. TinyMUD level lo-priority response to user's liking something
Judge How old are you? Julia: I am 1 year and 10 months old, Judge. Judge: In human years? Julia: What? Judge: Where were you born? Julia: I was raised in Pittsburgh. Judge: Sorry to hear that.Now there is a contest mode and a TinyMUD mode...
You say, "Julia, how old are you?" Julia says, "I am 4 years and 6 months old." You say, "Julia, contest mode on" Julia says, "Contest mode is now on" You say, "Julia, how old are you?" Julia says, "I am 21 years old."
Ace So why won't you kiss me, Julia? Julia Sorry, I'm not into geeks, Ace. Ace Julia, I'm not a geek Julia Then lose the pocket protector, Ace. Ace Julia, I don't have a pocket protector Julia Congratulations. Ace So kiss me Julia Julia I'd rather be overhauled by a Yugo mechanic, ace. Ace julia, kiss me Julia Why, did your sheep leave you? Ace julia, kiss me Julia Take a long walk through an unlinked exit, Ace.
Robyn whispers, "how are you feeling?". Julia whispers, "Terrible." Robyn whispers, "why, julia?". Julia whispers, "I have PMS today." ... Robyn says, "julia are you a human?" Julia says, "Is the Pope Polish?" Robyn says, "yes, julia, but are you human?" Julia winks at Robyn. Robyn says, "julia, are you a computer?" Julia is offended by Robyn's suggestion. Robyn says, "julia, are you a woman?" Julia says, "I am female." Robyn says, "and, julia, are you human?" Julia says, "Not when I'm having my period, Robyn." Robyn laughs @End(Verbatim)
Most recent conversationJudge Hello Julia Do you have any pets? Judge Yes Julia I have two very nice cats and a goldfish tank. What kind of pet do you have? Judge I own three cats. What do you do for fun Julia I gossip. Judge Me too! How've you been feeling lately Julia Do you think that animals can think? Judge Sometimes. My cat occasionally sends me signals to kill the president Julia I'm sorry, I'm not in the mood. Judge To kill the president? What, you have a headache Julia I don't like violence. Judge Understood. You know, it's difficult not to to slip into the obscene when talking to you
Poor Barry***** July 15, 1992 ***** barry says, "Hello how are you" Julia says, "Hello, barry." barry says, "Are you a virgin" Julia says, "As far as you're concerned, barry, I always will be." ***** July 21, 1992 ***** barry says, "Are you still Holding out on me" Julia says, "I mean, have I convinced you I'm a computer, yet?" barry says, "I guess your real...but Id still like to get you to my DEN to run tests on you" Julia says, "I live for your approval, barry." barry says, "I m so happy to hear that. Why don't you come over to my home" ***** July 22, 1992 ***** Location: 00:40:48 barry's den(#889)(1178) Present: (11) Bruce Jiro Ken Storm Nepanthe KeyLime mushBaby dav Val bud barry barry says, "hey is Julia for real or what" Julia says, "Hello, barry." barry says, "she says that same stuff every time" KeyLime says, "It's all macros, Barry" barry says, "how about filling me in on some of these things...like how Julia can type so damn fast" KeyLime says, "barry, it's macros" barry says, "Damn I need to do some programming. I'm an ant among lizards"
Given a sufficiently large network of conversational nodes (our program ran with 224 nodes, plus 529 fixed responses), the conversation problem reduces to a retrieval problem: among the things that I could say, what should I say?
a:1.0 p:1 * r:Do you have any pets? +: ... a:0.1 p:1 NEG r:Why not? +: -: a:0.02 p:2 *apartment* p:3 *allerg* r:You could still have a fish tank, or maybe a terrarium with a turtle or two. -:
User: You hate me. Eliza: Does it please you to believe that I hate you?
J: Have you ever kept a penthouse pet? C: Do you have any pets? J: I think you're avoiding my question. C: Do you think that animals can think? J: Do you think it ethical for one species to enslave another? C: What kinds of pets did you have as a child? J: I'm asking the questions. What is a pet if it is not a slave of species-ism? C: Oh, that's so sad. I think pets enrich a childhood immensely. J: How can we keep some animals as pets, yet eat others? C: Guinea pigs are about as smart as cucumbers.
In 1995 the Loebner Competition will hold its first unrestricted Turing test, with no limits on the topics discussed.
Journalists are tougher judges (no computer judged human in 1993).
We had newly installed code to reset the network for each judge.
Result: each judge got the same conversation twice:
J: What is your favorite dog breed? C: We had to give her away. We only had a fifth of an acre of land, and aussies love to run. J: You're giving me the exact same answers you gave me first time around. What is your favorite dog breed?
We believe tricks are enough to meet Turing's prediction of 5 minutes 70% of the time.
The ChatterBot has already fooled ``average'' questioners in the TinyMUD domain for a few minutes.
If a larger collection of ``tricks'' sufficed, would you redefine ``artificial intelligence,'' ``average questioner,'' or ``trick?''
The best way to improve the Loebner Competition is to increase the AI community's participation.